Atmospheric energy conversion characteristics of heavy rainfall in Sindh during the 2011 monsoon

Ge Fei, Zaheer Ahmad Babar, Guo Sheng-li, Chen Yun, Zhi Xie-fei, Tang Wei-wei


South Asian monsoon occurs in most parts of the Indian subcontinent including Pakistan, India and Bangladesh during the period June to September of every year. These winds rich in moisture are forced to lift by the Himalayas causing extreme precipitation in different parts of the subcontinent, especially in Pakistan. The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of atmospheric energy conversion and distribution during the heavy rainfall in Sindh, Pakistan for the period August-September 2011. The results show that when the energy value is greater than or equal to seven, the atmosphere jumps from stable to unstable. Under the influence of atmospheric circulations and terrain conditions, the kinetic energy is blocked by the mountains and is continuously converted into potential energy inside rainfall system. The peak phase of energy persisting for a considerable amount of time can lead to heavy rainfall. Moisture of this heavy rainfall mainly comes from the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.


Heavy rainfall, atmospheric energy, monsoon.

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