THE MEXICAN AXOLOTL´S (<em>Ambystoma mexicanum</em>) EARLY DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL IS AFFECTED BY COMMERCIAL GRADE MALATHION AND DICHLORVOS ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES

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Yutzil Irene Castán-Aquino
Sandra Fabiola Arias-Balderas
Ernesto Rojo-Salinas
Edgar Cervantes-Rangel
Iram Alejandro Ramos-Trujillo
Óscar Omar Solís-Castro

Resumen

The wild population of the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is subject to a dramatic decline as a consequence of deteriorating conditions in its natural habitat, Xochimilco. The common use of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in the region affects water quality and is partially responsible for the axolotl decline. This could be a consequence of the delicate nature of axolotls, which are struggling to survive under contaminated conditions at early stages of development. In this regard, we aimed to extend the knowledge of OPPs effect on the survival of axolotls in their early stage of development, within the context of detrimental environment conditions using commercial grade OPPs. Fertilized axolotl eggs were treated with malathion (MLT), dichlorvos (DDVP), and a depurated group in which the OPPs exposure was stopped earlier, as well as an untreated control group. Changes in hatching, survival, size, and morphology were monitored and analyzed in embryos and early larvae. Our results showed that MLT and DVPP accelerate egg hatching and mortality even after the early removal of OPPs from the medium. OPPs also caused a reduced size and morphological abnormalities. It is proposed that such abnormalities would jeopardize the survival of the wildlife axolotl. Our results suggest that OPPs can cause irreversible damage to the axolotl embryos, stopping their normal development, causing death and reducing their chances of survival in their natural environment.

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Biografía del autor/a

Yutzil Irene Castán-Aquino, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. Los Barrios #1, Colonia Los Reyes Iztacala, Tlalnepantla Edo. Mex. C.P. 54090

Bióloga por la UNAM, Maestria en ciencias de la sostenibilidad por la UNAM. 

Consultora independiente en eAgua.

Sandra Fabiola Arias-Balderas, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. Los Barrios #1, Colonia Los Reyes Iztacala, Tlalnepantla Edo. Mex. C.P. 54090

Bióloga por la UNAM, Doctora en ciencias biológicas por la UNAM.

Académica y administradora del ajolotario (FES Iztacala, UNAM).  

Ernesto Rojo-Salinas, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. Los Barrios #1, Colonia Los Reyes Iztacala, Tlalnepantla Edo. Mex. C.P. 54090

Pasante de Biología, UNAM.

 

Edgar Cervantes-Rangel, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. Los Barrios #1, Colonia Los Reyes Iztacala, Tlalnepantla Edo. Mex. C.P. 54090

Biólogo por la UNAM. 

Consultor ambiental. 

Iram Alejandro Ramos-Trujillo, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. Los Barrios #1, Colonia Los Reyes Iztacala, Tlalnepantla Edo. Mex. C.P. 54090

Pasante de Biología, UNAM.

Óscar Omar Solís-Castro, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. Los Barrios #1, Colonia Los Reyes Iztacala, Tlalnepantla Edo. Mex. C.P. 54090

Biólogo por la UNAM, Maestría y Doctorado en medicina regenerativa y células madre por la Universidad de Sheffield, Inglaterra.

Investigador postdoctoral en el departamento de odontología clínica de la Universidad de Sheffield, Inglaterra.

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