A four-stage suitability evaluation framework considering restrictive factor for underground space sustainable development and the application in Jinan Pilot zone

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Quanlin Feng
Hongjie Sun
Yang Wang
Zhenhua Zhao
Kai Liu
Zhihui Wang
Jinkai Yan


One of the primary concerns for sustainable and safety development of urban underground space is to find out the key restrictive factors and the corresponding methods to avoid or modify the constraints. Aiming to provide practical decisions, a four-stage evaluation framework with fuzzy mathematics comprehensive evaluation (FMCE) method was adapted and proposed considering the restrictive factors and management programs. The four stages are 1) identifying the major indicators and restrictive factors that represent geological conditions, 2) collecting data from literature, field investigation and experts’ judgements, 3) combing the qualitative information and quantitative calculation to evaluate the suitability, 4) providing feasible suggestions with management programs that weaken the disadvantage. The four-stage framework is applied in Jinan Pilot Zone as an example. The FMCE method is conducted by employing hydrology, hydrogeology, engineering geology, mining goaf (the restrictive factor), building foundation, and developed underground space as the primary evaluation factors. Protected areas are indicated and two schemes of recharge filling and secondary landscape development are compared in terms of costs and benefits. It is suggested that the existing facilities should be used to develop the underground space with exploration and tourism projects, which might become one highlight of the Pilot Zone.


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