VARIATIONS IN SULPHATE AEROSOLS CONCENTRATION DURING WINTER MONSOON SEASON FOR TWO CONSECUTIVE YEARS USING A GENERAL CIRCULATION MODEL

Sunita Verma, Olivier Boucher, H.C. Upadhyaya, O.P. Sharma

Abstract

During the field cruises of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) extensive measurements on the atmo¬spheric chemical and aerosol composition are undertaken to study the long-range transport of air pollution from south and southeast Asia towards the Indian Ocean during the dry monsoon season in 1998 and 1999. The present paper discusses the temporal and spatial variations in aerosols and aerosol forcing during the winter monsoon season (January-March) for INDOEX first field phase (FFP) in 1998 and INDOEX intensive field phase (IFP) in 1999. An interactive chemistry/aerosol model (LMDZ.3.3) is used to investigate the variation in the spatial distribution of tropospheric sulphate aerosols during 1998 and 1999. The model results depict major enhancement in the sulphate aerosol concentrations, radiative forcing (RF) and optical depth over the Indian subcontinent and adjoining marine areas between INDOEX-FFP and IFP. A significant increase in transport of sulphate aerosols from the continents to the Indian Ocean region has also been simulated during the winter monsoon in 1999. The mean RF over INDOEX-FFP in 1998 is found to be –1.2 Wm-2 while it increased to –1.85 Wm-2 during INDOEX-IFP in 1999. Model results reveal a mean sulphate aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.08 and 0.14 over Indian subcontinent during 1998 and 1999, respectively. The model results suggest that elevated AOD downwind of source regions in India can significantly affect the regional air quality and adjoining marine environments.

Keywords

Aerosols, emissions, radiative forcing, GCM, transport. 1.

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