Particulate Matter Air Pollution Effects on Pulmonary Tuberculosis Activation in a Semi-Desert City on the US-Mexican Border

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Marco Antonio Reyna
Stephan Schwander
Roberto López Avitia
Miguel Enrique Bravo-Zanoguera
Myrtha Elvia Reyna
Martha Lorena Nava
Miriam Siqueiros
Álvaro Román Osornio-Vargas

Abstract

In this paper, we assessed the association (relative risk, RR) between the exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 (as a continuous variable and as categories of low or high pollution exposure) on the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. We used a weekly, lagged multiple Poisson regression model. We observed a 10-week delayed effect for PM10 and PM2.5 in all PTB cases and in male cases with PTB. An 11-week delayed effect occurred in the female PTB cases. For all the PTB cases, the RR rose by 2.4% (95% CI: 2.1, 2.6, p<0.10) for each 10 µg/m3 increase of PM10 in the continuous exposure and by 3.6% (CI: 3.3, 4.0, p<0.05) in the high pollution exposure category, and by 3.2% (CI: 2.9, 3.4, p<0.05) for each 10 µg/m3 increase of PM2.5 in the continuous exposure and by 3.9% (CI: 3.6, 4.3, p<0.05) in the high pollution exposure category. In men, the RR rose by 2.8% (CI: 2.5, 3.1, p<0.10) for each 10 µg/m3 increase of PM10 in the continuous exposure and by 4.6% (CI: 4.2, 5.0, p<0.05) in the high pollution exposure category, and by 3.4% (CI: 3.1, 3.7, p<0.05) for each 10 µg/m3 increase of PM2.5 in the continuous exposure and by 4.2% (CI: 3.8, 4.6, p<0.05) in the high pollution exposure category. In women, the RR rose by 5.1% (CI: 4.7, 5.5, p<0.05) for each 10 µg/m3 increase of PM10 in the continuous exposure and by 5.3% (CI: 4.7, 5.8, p<0.10) in the high pollution exposure category, and by 4.3% (CI: 3.8, 4.8, p<0.10) for each 10 µg/m3 increase of PM2.5 in the continuous exposure and by 5.3% (CI: 4.8, 5.9, p<0.10) in the high pollution exposure category. PM air pollution appears to associate with the incidence of PTB in the population of Mexicali. 

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Author Biographies

Marco Antonio Reyna, Cuerpo Académico de Bioingeniería y Salud Ambiental de la Universidad Autónoma de Baja California. Blv. Benito Juárez y calle de la Normal S/N, Colonia Insurgentes Este C.P. 21280, Mexicali, Baja California, México.

Cuerpo Académico de Bioingeniería y Salud Ambiental de la Universidad Autónoma de Baja California.

Stephan Schwander, Departments Urban-Global Public Health & Environmental and Occupational Health, Rutgers School of Public Health, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, United States of America.

Departments Urban-Global Public Health & Environmental and Occupational Health

Roberto López Avitia, Cuerpo Académico de Bioingeniería y Salud Ambiental de la Universidad Autónoma de Baja California. Blv. Benito Juárez y calle de la Normal S/N, Colonia Insurgentes Este C.P. 21280, Mexicali, Baja California, México.

Cuerpo Académico de Bioingeniería y Salud Ambiental

Miguel Enrique Bravo-Zanoguera, Cuerpo Académico de Bioingeniería y Salud Ambiental de la Universidad Autónoma de Baja California. Blv. Benito Juárez y calle de la Normal S/N, Colonia Insurgentes Este C.P. 21280, Mexicali, Baja California, México.

Cuerpo Académico de Bioingeniería y Salud Ambiental

Myrtha Elvia Reyna, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

Martha Lorena Nava, Departamento de Epidemiología del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexicali, Baja California, México.

Departamento de Epidemiología del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.

Miriam Siqueiros, Cuerpo Académico de Bioingeniería y Salud Ambiental de la Universidad Autónoma de Baja California. Blv. Benito Juárez y calle de la Normal S/N, Colonia Insurgentes Este C.P. 21280, Mexicali, Baja California, México.

Cuerpo Académico de Bioingeniería y Salud Ambiental

Álvaro Román Osornio-Vargas, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, 3-591 ECHA, 11405 87th Ave. Edmonton T6G 1C9, Canada.

Department of Pediatrics

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