Thermodynamic analysis of convective events that occurred in Belém-PA city

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Ludmila Monteiro da Silva
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0584-511X
Maria Aurora Santos da Mota
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0452-8828

Abstract

The Amazon Basin is dominated by convective rainfall, which has significant spatial and diurnal variations. In order to analyze the diurnal and seasonal distribution of convective events, as well as the thermodynamic analysis of some events, data on rainfall and cloud top temperature between January 2008 and December 2010 were used for the urban area of the city Belém-PA. 94 convective events were found, of which 59 are Deep Convective Events (DCE) and 34 are Shallow Convective Events (SCE). Most events occurred between 15 and 22 UTC, and 55% of them occurred in the rainy season. Daytime warming and sea breeze circulation play an important role in the occurrence of these events. The temperature profile showed a tendency to be higher when SCE occurred, mainly between the surface and approximately 850 hPa. The moisture profiles showed greater variability between 850 and 700 hPa, and the humidity was higher two hours before the rain and less after the rain. The zonal component of the wind showed significant shear from the surface to 850 hPa, being stronger in the three cases of DCE. The highest values of CAPE were observed about 2 to 3 hours before heavy rain, while the lowest values occurred in the hour of rain. Almost all SCE occurred when a meteorological system was present and the three cases of DCE occurred when there was a predominance of local convection. Therefore, the results presented in this paper might be relevant for modeling studies and for short-term forecast.

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Author Biographies

Ludmila Monteiro da Silva, Universidade Federal do Pará Belém, PA, Brasil

Degree in Meteorology from the Universidade Federal do Pará, a Master's degree in Environmental Sciences from the UFPA and a PhD in Climate and Environment from the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA). She was a temporary professor at the Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA). She is currently associate professor a at the UFPA. She has experience in the area of geosciences, with an emphasis on meteorology, working on the last topics: Precipitation, CAPE and Convection.

Maria Aurora Santos da Mota, Universidade Federal do Pará Belém, PA, Brasil

Graduated in Meteorology from the Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Master in Meteorology from the Universidade de São Paulo (USP) and PhD in Meteorology from the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE). She is currently a full professor at the UFPA, teaching classes in the undergraduate course in Meteorology and the Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Ambientais (PPGCA). He has experience in the field of Geosciences, with an emphasis on Meteorology, working mainly on the following themes: climate, convection in the Amazon, thermodynamics of the atmosphere, atmospheric modeling, urban climate, susceptibility and urban vulnerability.

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