Seasonal variation of atmospheric bulk deposition along an urbanization gradient in Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

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Darithsa Loya González
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8614-9644
Israel Cantú Silva
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8996-0881
Humberto González Rodríguez
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0798-0825
Daniel López Serna
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3922-5624
Juan Manuel Alfaro Barbosa
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1170-7373

Abstract

Bulk deposition was studied along an urbanization gradient in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. During a yearlong period seven sites within the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey (MAM) and two rural sites (Allende and Linares) were monitored, with the purpose of characterizing deposition and identifying possible patterns between sites. A total of 32 rainfall events were collected. An average pH of 7.15 ± 0.02 was found, which indicates the presence of neutralizing substances in rainwater, as well as an average Electrical Conductivity of 153.96 ± 6.83 μS/cm. The annual accumulated deposition follows the descending order Ca> K> Mg> Zn> Fe> Mn> Cu> Cd> Ni and does not show significant differences between urban and rural areas, with the exception of Ca (p = 0.017). The Principal Component Analysis shows that metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, and Cd) represent an important pathway in the deposition phenomena and this behavior is maintained through the urbanization gradient, which denotes that the rural areas could be connected to the air basin of the MAM. Seasonal deposition showed that Zn, Fe, Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn Ca, and Mg are higher during autumn and K during winter. Enrichment Factors shows that Zn and Cd were highly enriched, Cu and Ni were moderately enriched, and Ca, K, and Mn were not enriched. Finally, backward trajectories for rural sites showed that only for Allende site a possible carry-over of pollutants is observed during the summer, since the wind currents come preferably from the northern part of the MAM.

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Author Biographies

Darithsa Loya González, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Carretera Nacional No. 85, Km 145, Linares, Nuevo León, 67700, México

Dr. candidate in science with orientation in natural resource management, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Mexico. 

 

Israel Cantú Silva, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Carretera Nacional No. 85, Km 145, Linares, Nuevo León, 67700, México

Ph.D. Bioenvironmental Science, Tottori University, Japan 

Agroforestry department.

Head of the laboratory of soil science, environmental hydrology, and soil conservation. 

Humberto González Rodríguez, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Carretera Nacional No. 85, Km 145, Linares, Nuevo León, 67700, México

Ph.D. Plant Physiology, Texas A&M University, USA. 

Basic science department.

Head of the laboratory of chemistry, and plant physiology. 



Daniel López Serna, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66451, México.

Dr. Environmental analytical chemistry, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Mexico. 

Environmental analytical chemistry laboratory. 


Juan Manuel Alfaro Barbosa, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66451, México.

Dr. rer. Nat. Inorganic chemistry, Hamburg University, Germany. 

Head of the Laboratory of Environmental Analytical Chemistry and Coordinator of the Academy of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry.

 

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