Seasonal variation of atmospheric bulk deposition along an urbanization gradient in Nuevo Leon, Mexico

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Darithsa Loya-González
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8614-9644
Israel Cantú-Silva
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8996-0881
Humberto González-Rodríguez
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0798-0825
Daniel López-Serna
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3922-5624
J.M. Alfaro Barbosa
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1170-7373

Abstract

Bulk deposition was studied along an urbanization gradient in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. During a yearlong period seven sites within the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey (MAM) and two rural sites (Allende and Linares) were monitored, with the purpose of characterizing deposition and identifying possible patterns between sites. A total of 32 rainfall events were collected. An average pH of 7.15 ± 0.02 was found, which indicates the presence of neutralizing substances in rainwater, as well as an average Electrical Conductivity of 153.96 ± 6.83 μS/cm. The annual accumulated deposition follows the descending order Ca> K> Mg> Fe> Zn> Mn> Cu> Cd> Ni and does not show significant differences between urban and rural areas, with the exception of Ca (p = 0.017). The Principal Component Analysis shows that metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, and Cd) represent an important pathway in the deposition phenomena and this behavior is maintained through the urbanization gradient, which denotes that the rural areas could be connected to the air basin of the MAM. Seasonal deposition showed that Zn, Fe, Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn Ca, and Mg are higher during autumn and K during winter. Enrichment Factors shows that Zn and Cd were highly enriched, Cu and Ni were moderately enriched, and Ca, K, and Mn were not enriched. Finally, backward trajectories for rural sites showed that only for Allende site a possible carry-over of pollutants is observed during the summer, since the wind currents come preferably from the northern part of the MAM.

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