Defining climate zones in México City using multivariate analysis

F. ESTRADA, A. MARTÍNEZ ARROYO, A. FERNÁNDEZ EGUIARTE, E. LUYANDO, C. GAY

Abstract

Spatial variability in the climate of México City was studied using multivariate methods to analyze 30 years of meteorological data from 37 stations (from the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional) located within the city. Although it covers relatively small area, México City encompasses considerable climatic heterogeneity, due mainly to the contrasts in elevation and land use within its territory. Multivariate methods were used in this study to reduce the dimensionality of the variables reported by the weather stations, to define climate indexes for representing the main features of México City’s climate more compactly, as well as to identify geographic zones with similar climatic characteristics. The results of the study contribute additional evidence of the important influence of orography and urbanization on climates in cities. Two large regions and four subregions with similar climatic characteristics were identified in this study: low altitude suburban, low altitude highly urbanized, urbanized mountain base, and higher elevation with forests. Three climate indices were also defined. The three indexes are related to temperature and precipitation, to days with fog and with electrical storms, and to days with hail and low temperatures. The results of this study suggest that multivariate analysis can be a useful tool for urban planning and for tracking the impact of anthropogenic factors on microclimate.

 

Keywords

Urban climate; multivariate analysis; México City

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