Effects of soil heat storage and phase shift correction on energy balance closure of paddy fields

Xiaoyin Liu, Shihong Yang, Junzeng Xu, Jiangang Zhang, Jintao Liu

Abstract

The eddy covariance technique was used to measure the energy fluxes of a paddy field under water-saving irrigation in the South China Plain for the stage of rice growth in 2013. This study analyzed the energy balance components and evaluated the energy balance closure. The study also discussed the response of surface energy balance to the change in soil heat storage between the heat flux plates buried at a specific depth and the surface, and the phase shift correction of energy balance components, by using three different statistical methods, namely ordinary least squares (OLS), energy balance ratio (EBR), and energy balance residual (D). The results showed that the OLS slope increased by an average of 8.8%, and the mean daily EBR increased by 5.0% after considering the change in soil heat storage. The range of half-hourly D over a four-month period decreased from –129 - 260 W m−2 to –102 - 194 W m−2, and the absolute value of D decreased by 9.9% on the average. Considering the phase correction, the increase in OLS regression coefficients with an average of 11.3% and the decrease in half-hourly D, ranging from –61 to 176 W m−2, both indicated that phase shift correction improved the surface energy balance closure at the half-hourly scale, specifically in the period from sunrise to noon, but had no use in the daily scale. Thus, the two correction methods are useful in improving the degree of energy balance closure shown in different temporal scales with proper evaluation index. Moreover, further research should be given with more attention for other correction aspects.

Keywords

Water-saving irrigation; paddy field; eddy covariance; energy balance; soil heat storage; phase shift correction

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