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Is the energy balance in a tropical lowland rice paddy perfectly closed?

Dibyendu Chatterjee, Chinmaya Kumar Swain, Sumanta Chatterjee, Pratap Bhattacharyya, Rahul Tripathi, Banwari Lal, Priyanka Gautam, Mohammad Shahid, Pradeep Kumar Dash, Biswaranjan Dhal, Amaresh Kumar Nayak

Abstract

A two-year (2015 and 2016) field experiment was carried out to study the surface energy budget and energy balance closure (EBC) in a tropical lowland rice paddy in Cuttack, India. Maintenance of a standing water layer in lowland irrigated rice ecosystem makes it unique and this strongly influences the surface energy balance which may alter the surface runoff, ground water storage, water cycle, surface energy budget, and possibly microclimate of the region. To study this, an experiment was conducted using eddy covariance system to measure the surface energy balance components during two cropping seasons (dry season, DS and wet season, WS) and two consecutive fallow periods (dry fallow, DF and wet fallow, WF). The rice was grown in puddled wet lands in DS and WS and the ground was left fallow (DF and WF) during the rest of the year. Results displayed that daily average latent heat flux at surface (LE) and at canopy height (LEc) dominated over sensible heat flux at surface (H) and canopy height (Hc), respectively due to the presence of water source coming from the standing water in the rice field. The EBC was evaluated by ordinary least square (OLS), energy balance ratio (EBR) and residual heat flux (RHF). In OLS, the slope ranged 0.38-0.89 (2015) and 0.28-0.99 (2016) during the study period. Average RHF was 10.3-12.0% higher in WS as compared to DS. It was concluded that the EBC estimated using RHF is the most suitable way to calculate closure for lowland rice paddy since it can distinguish different seasons distinctively, followed by OLS. Much variation was not observed in EBR after inclusion of storage terms (water, soil, photosynthesis, canopy) to the classical EBR.

Keywords

heat flux partitioning; energy balance closure; energy balance ratio; eddy covariance; residual heat flux; rice

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