Early meteorological records of Manila: El Niño episode of 1864

J. M. VAQUERO, M. C. GALLEGO, J. A. GARCÍA

Abstract

The goal of this contribution is to analyze the meteorological observations that the Spanish friar Antonio Llanos registered during the 1858-1865 period in the Philippines Isles. These records were published 140 years ago but have been ignored until now. The data published by Llanos are essentially information about precipitation. These data agree with the existence of an episode of El Niño during 1864 just as previous investigations based in proxy data have noted. Other early meteorological records of he Philippines Isles are presented, as well.

Keywords

Historical climatology; early records;Philippines Islands; ENSO

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